# Logically Thinking

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The topic deductive reasoning is complex and very intimidating, but with patience and effort it is nothing more than using logic to solve a problem. Deductive reasoning is the process of making conclusions from one or more given statements. The statements that are used to form the conclusions are conditional statements, contrapositive statements, converse statements, and inverse statements. Conditional statement is if p, then q; contrapositive statement is if not q, then p; converse statement is if q then p; inverse statement is if not p, then not q. The letters p and q simply stand for a sentence (statement). An example will help to understand these meanings.

An example is p: The power is out at school and q: They cancel school. In this problem the conditional statement is if the power is out at school, then they will cancel school. The contrapositive statement is if they do not cancel school, then the power is not out at school. The converse statement is if they cancel school, then the power is out at school. The inverse statement is if the power is not out at school, then school is not cancelled. The conditional and contrapositive statements are both true; the converse and inverse statements are both false. The converse and inverse statements are false because for example there could be a snow day that causes school to be canceled. Deductive reasoning is just one example of logical thinking; there are many more.

Logically thinking is a great way to get your brain working! There are multiple ways to improve your skills; according to the article “Top 10 Ways to Improve Your Brain Fitness”, the number one way to improve your brain is by playing games. The games that the article included were Sudoku, crosswords, and online games. All of the games listed rely on logic and math skills; we played some logic games in class. Sudoku was one of the games we played in class. The game has 3 rules; every row must contain all the numbers (example if you are dealing with a 4×4 square then you must use the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4) and no number can occur more than once, every column must contain all the numbers and no number can occur more than once, and every inner square must contain all the numbers and no number can occur more than once. This may sound confusing, but it gets your brain thinking logically!

Sudoku